GG (June 2007)

This is the June 2007 release of GG, an HPSG for German developed at the DFKI Language Technology Lab, Saarbrücken, Germany, as part of the DELPH-IN consortium. The grammar was first published in June 2006.

Development was funded by the German Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology ("Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)"), as part of the projects DISCO (ITW 9002 0), Verbmobil (01 701 V0), Whiteboard (01 IW 002), Quetal (01 IW C02), and Collate (01 IN A01 B). The grammar is currently developed by Berthold Crysmann.

The grammar is released under the LGPLLR, a version of the LGPL adapted to linguistic resources. See the above link or LICENSE for details.

Online Demo

You can try out the grammar online and browse the analyses at


The grammar is currently available as a .tar.gz archive. Soon, it will be moved to a subversion (version control) server hosted at DFKI. The November 2007 version, which inter alia supports punctuation is available from here.


The grammar is intended to be used with systems that can run TDL-style grammars, such as the LKB (Copestake 2001) or Pet (Callmeier 2000), and can be used for parsing (LKB & Pet) and generation (LKB).


In the LKB, you can load the grammar via the script file lkb/script. We encourage the use of the lexical database (lexdb) by Benjamin Waldron, which is distributed as part of the LKB. See the DELPH-IN Wiki for installation instructions. I recommend the following settings for *lexdb-params*: ((:dbname "gg") (:mode "gg")), to disable sortal restrictions.


The grammar files come with a Makefile to facilitate installation: Run `make' to compile .grm files for the Pet runtime parser cheap(1). Make sure the `flop(1)' preprocessor is in your PATH.
  • german-unfill.grm
  • binary grammar file with unfilling (no packing)
  • suitable for HoG
  • german-pack.grm
  • packing, no unfilling
  • suitable for HoG, but interoperability is not that well tested
  • symbolic link to german.grm, loads definition for packing restrictor in pet/german-pack.set
  • german.grm
  • no packing, no unfilling
  • slow, suitable for HoG
  • Documentation

    Documentation for the grammar can be found in the literature. Publications particularly relevant to this version of the grammar are:

  • Müller & Kasper (2000)
  • Crysmann (2003)
  • Crysmann (2005)
  • The grammar uses revised German spelling conventions, at least as far as the ss/ß rules are concerned. Support for the old spelling conventions will be added in the future. The grammar and the lexicon are encoded in UTF-8.


    Owing to a bug in Allegro CLIM, direct input of 8bit characters from the LKB GUI is not possible. As a workaround, you can use either TeX or HTML syntax, or invoke the parser from the Lisp prompt '(do-parse-tty "Am Anfang war das Wort.")'.

    Alternatively, you can use the Trollet GUI by Pavel Mihalyov, which fully supports UTF-8.

    See TODO for grammar related known issues.

    Berthold Crysmann, Fefor, Norway, 17th June 2006


      author =       {Stefan M{\"u}ller and Walter Kasper},
      title =        {{HPSG} Analysis of {German} },
      booktitle =    {Verbmobil: Foundations of Speech-to-Speech Translation},
      pages =        {238--253},
      publisher =    {Springer},
      year =         2000,
      editor =       {Wolfgang Wahlster},
      address =      {Berlin}
      author =       {Berthold Crysmann},
      title =        {Relative Clause Extraposition in {German}: An Efficient and Portable Implementation},
      journal =      {Research on Language and Computation},
      volume =       {3},
      number =       {1},
      pages =        {61--82},
      year =         {2005}
      author =       {Berthold Crysmann},
      title =        {On the Efficient Implementation of {German} Verb Placement in {HPSG}},
      booktitle =    {Proceedings of RANLP 2003},
      address =      {Borovets, Bulgaria},
      pages =        {112--116},
      year =         2003
      author =       {Berthold Crysmann},
      title =        {Syncretism in {German}: a Unified  Approach to Underspecification, Indeterminacy, and likeness of Case},
      booktitle =    {Proceedings of the 12th Int'l Conference on Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), Aug 22--24, Lisbon},
      year =         {to appear},
      address =      {Stanford},
      publisher =    {CSLI publications}